Sugata Mitra

Last updated on: 7 May 2015


School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
Direct: +44 191 222 6560
Switchboard:+44 191 222 6000
Fax: +44 191 222 8170


Born in Calcutta, India on 12 February, 1952. Citizen of India, currently resident in Gateshead, UK.
Married to Sushmita Mitra, now retired from National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), Government of India. One son, Shounak Mitra , born in 1981, working as software engineer in Denver, Colorado, USA.


  • Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in the Theoretical Solid State Physics of Organic Semiconductors, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, 1978.
  • Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Physics with specialisation in Quantum Biology and Acoustic Holography, Indian Institue of Technology, Delhi, 1975. First class
  • Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) with honours in Physics from Jadavpur University, Calcutta, 1973. First Class with second position in the University.
  • Indian School Certificate (I.S.C.) awarded by the University of Cambridge, UK from St. Xavier’s High School, Delhi, 1969. First Division.


Current: Director, SOLE Central and Professor of Educational Technology, School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences, Newcastle University, UK.
2011-12: Visiting Professor, MIT Media Lab, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
2006: Professor of Educational Technology, School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences, Newcastle University, UK.
1990 - 2006: Chief Scientist, Centre for Research in Cognitive Systems, NIIT Ltd., India’s largest multinational training and software services company. Founded and heading the R&D Centre of the company and responsible for all innovations in education, computer applications, media and communications technology. Activities include management, research, teaching and writing. During this period (1990-2006), the company turnover increased from Indian Rupees (INR) 300 million to over INR 10 billion (US$250 million).
1987-1990: Director, Publishing Systems, United Database (India) Ltd., then India’s largest telephone directory publishing company. Heading all technical functions including research and development. Activities included management, research and systems development. During this period, the company turnover increased from INR 35 million to INR 750 million.
1983-1987: Head, Technology Division, United India Periodicals Pvt. Ltd., publishers of daily newspaper, the Patriot. Responsible for all digital technology including research and development. Activities included management, research, teaching, writing and systems development. During this period, the company turnover increased from INR 10 million to INR 30 million.
1982-1983: Manager, Product Development, National Institute of Information Technology. Activites included research, teaching and development of instructional material.
1981-1982: Senior Scientific Officer, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. Activities included research and teaching.
1980-1981: Research Fellow, Technical University of Vienna, Austria.
1979-1980: Research Associate, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

Professional Experience

Research: Over 35 years’ experience in Learning Systems, Educational Software and Instructional Design, Organic Semiconductors, Computational Physics, Energy Storage Systems, Living Systems, Publishing Systems, Neural Networks, Multimedia, the Internet, Cognitive Systems and Artificial Life.
Software: Conceived, designed, developed and implemented over 100,000 lines of code in Fortran IV and 7 dialects of Basic including Visual Basic as well as HTML.
Communication: Published over 35 research papers and over 1000 articles for adults and children in magazines and newspapers since 1965. Designed and implemented over 12 digital interactive multimedia applications. Played the lead instructional role in a 30 part Television serial on computers. Appeared in numerous technical interviews and instructional programs on Indian national and international television. Taught over 3000 students ranging from children to graduates and executives since 1975. Developed courses that have been used by NIIT and others to train over a million students all over the world.
Management: Established and managed the following:
-Computing Facility - the Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, 1982.
-Product Development Cell - National Institute of Information Technology, 1983.
-Technology Division - United India Periodicals, 1986
-United Database (India) - United Database India Ltd., 1987.
-R&D Centre - NIIT Ltd., 1990
-Centre for Research in Cognitive Systems (CRCS) – NIIT Ltd. 1999.
-Director of research, ECLS, Newcastle University, 2007-2009

Membership and Affiliations

  • Vice President, All India Association for Educational Technology, India. (1993-97)
  • Member, The Press Club of India
  • Member, India Habitat Centre
  • Member, New York Academy of Sciences, USA
  • Member, Planetary Society, USA
  • Member, Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), USA
  • UNDP consultant, Indira Gandhi Centre for the Arts, India (1995-97)


  • The National Science Talent Scholarship, 1969-1978.
  • The National Merit Scholarship, 1969.
  • The Indo-Austrian Research Scholarship, 1980-1981.
  • The Raizada award for the best paper of 1999 from the Computer Society of India, 1999.
  • The “Best ICT story” award from the IICD at the World Bank’s Global Knowledge II conference in Kuala Lumpur, March 2000.
  • The “Best Social Innovation of the year 2000” award from the Institute for social inventions, UK, 2000.
  • The “Man for Peace” award for 2002 from the Together For Peace Foundation, Italy, 2002
  • Finalist, World Technology Awards, education category, World Technology Network, San Francisco, June, 2003
  • The Dewang Mehta award for innovation in IT, Ministry of Information Technology, Government of India, 2005
  • Best Education Research Article in an Open Access Journal for 2005, The Communication of Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association, 2006
  • Alumni Award for Outstanding Contribution to National Development, from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, 2006
  • Best Book award from the Indian Society for Training and Development, 2007
  • Honorary Doctorate, Technical University of Delft, the Netherlands, 2011
  • Special Achievement Award, 'Learning Without Borders', 2011
  • The Klingenstein Award, USA, 2011
  • The Leonardo European Corporate Learning Award 2012
  • The $1 million TED prize 2013
  • Distinguished Alumni Award, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, 2013
  • Honorary Doctorate, Open University, UK, 2014
  • Honorary Doctorate, Siglio 21 University, Argentina, 2016

Principal Achievements

Conception, design, development and implementation of novel computer applications in India.

1983: India’s first Local Area Network based newspaper publishing system.
Configured and implemented a Burroughs B21 network connected to Autologic typesetters and programmed pagination rules in the pre-desktop publishing era. Also predicted the emergence of desktop publishing industry.
Ref: Computers Today, May 1985 (India). Copy available.

1985: India’s first automatic database publishing system.
Conceived and developed database publishing software and applied this to produce the Delhi Telephone directory.
Ref: Times of India, Saturday, December 10,1988, pg1 (India). Copy available.

1988: The world’s first PC-LAN based Yellow Page publishing system.
Developed the technology and applied it to produce the first telephone directories with Yellow Pages for the Indian cities of Agra, Bombay, Bhubaneshwar, Calcutta, Coimbatore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Madurai, Salem, Thiruchrapally and Vishakhapattanam. Subsequently transferred the technology to Bangladesh to produce the first directories of Dhaka and Chittagong cities. In effect, this technology started the database publishing industry in these parts of Asia.
Ref: Computers Today, October 1988, pg73 (India). Copy available.

1989: India’s first Perception Recording System
Invented a system to take continuous analog inputs from 16 users and produce a real-time graph on a PC, with several statistical modes. Used for qualitative perception feedback studies, the system remains one of the few of its kind in the world.
Ref: ET, May 29, 1991 (India). Copy available.

1990: The world’s first hyperlinking software
Conceived and developed “Imaginet”, a program to hyperlink application programs on PC s such that the user can move seamlessly from application to application. Subsequently used for producing the first multimedia applications in India.
Ref: Imaginet: An Associative, Non-sequential multimedia Storage and Retrieval System
S.Mitra and Ajay Magon, Multmedia Computer and Communications: Technology, Application and Enterprise (INFOCOM ‘92), Tata McGraw Hill pg 20-30, November 5-7, 1992, Bombay (India)
Also: Sunday Magazine, August 11, 1993 (India). Copy available.

1992: The world’s first on-line multimedia Operation Theatre Information System
Supervised the development and implementation of a PC-LAN based system that converts conventional patient records into multimedia (audio, graphics, video, etc.) in real time for providing support information to surgeons during heart-bypass surgery.
Ref: Computers Today, May 1993 (India). Copy available.

1993: India’s first Interactive Television
Invented what is possibly the most inexpensive method for implementing interactive TV using a combination of hyperlinking, voice mail and VGA to video technologies.
Ref: Quality Inn, Kensington Terrace, Bangalore (India). Also, Citicable, NOIDA, U.P.(India).

1994: India’s first computer based edutainment course for children
Developed a model for edutainment and implemented it to teach children advanced concepts in computing including concepts on Graphical User Interfaces, Artificial Intelligence, Genetic Programming and Artificial Life.
Ref: Education through Digital Entertainment: A Structured Approach, Renu Ahuja, Sugata Mitra, Rashmi Kumar and Monica Singh, Proc XXX Annual Conference of the CSI, pg 187, Tata McGraw Hill, 1995 (India)
Also: Express Computer, Bombay, May15, 1995 (India). Copies available.

1995: India’s first electroencephalic interface for PCs
Conceived and supervised the development of an amplifier and digitiser for electroencephalic signals. This small and inexpensive device can act as a EEG or ECG viewer for biomedical purposes. However, the present project is aimed at studying the use of this device as a possible user interface for PCs and neurofeedback training.

Ref: Telegraph, Calcutta, October 21, 1996 (India). Copy available.

1996: The world’s first virtual university on the Internet
Developed the NIITNetVarsity, a virtual university on the Internet. While several universities have web sites, the NetVarsity is a simulated environment that has no physical counterpart. The project was completed in July, 1996 and was at that time the only learning environment of its kind in the world. Instruction in the NetVarsity is composed of “Skilletes”, which are like “atoms” of instruction. Modules are constructed by joining combinations of Skillettes to each other.Ref:

1997: India’s first live Internet camera applications
Developed and implemented live cam applications for webcasting the proceedings of the Annual General Body meeting of the Confederation of Indian Industries. This was followed by a webcast of live open heart surgery at the Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre.

1998: The Worlds first outdoor Internet kiosk for disadvantaged children
Conceived and developed an outdoor kiosk that provides Internet access to slum children in New Delhi as well as rural children all over India. Popularly known as the “Hole in the wall”, this project continues to attract worldwide attention. The experiment has been reported in almost all printed and broadcast media in the world. Thousands of references available on the Internet.

1999: India’s first wireless web cameras and guided robotic Internet vehicles
Led a team of researchers that built and tested wireless Internet robotic camera applications. Currently operational at the Qutab Minar in Delhi and the Char Minar in Hyderabad, India.

2000: India’s first infra-red and/or radio frequency digital speech delivery device
Led a team of researchers that built and deployed solid state, digital speech transmitters and receivers for a museum application. Visitors would “hear” exhibits describe themselves as they are approached. Currently deployed at Bodh Gaya, Bihar, India and at the Ramakrishna Mission, Delhi, India.

2001-2006: Deployment of outdoor rural kiosks for children
Funded by the International Finance Corporation, the Government of Delhi, the ICICI bank and the Government of India, constructed “hole in the wall” kiosks in remote villages of India, Cambodia and all over Africa. Over a five hundred computers now (2009) exist in these countries in the open and over 150,000 children use these for self-instruction and entertainment.

2007-2009: Design, development and deployment of Self Organised Learning Environments (SOLE) for children
Funded by the education fund of Orient Global, designed and constructed 12 SOLE facilities in disadvantaged areas of Hyderabad and Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India. Over 6000 children use these facilities for self organised learning. Resulted were tested in Newcastle, UK This resulted in the training of thousands of teachers all over the world in the period 2009-2013. Schools in every continent have started using SOLEs and the number of children impacted is likely to be in the hundreds of thousands. Most major newspapers and TV channels in the world have reported this work.

2009: Conception and deployment of a Self Organised Mediation Environment (SOME) for children
The Oscar winning film 'Slumdog Millionaire' was based on a book by the same name inspired by Mitra's 'Hole in the wall' experiments. This was reported in the Guardian UK in February 2009 and resulted in a large number of volunteers willing to help with children in remote areas. Using Skype and a website a 'cloud' of mediators interact synchronously with children in Hyderabad and Shirgaon. Results were tested and more than a dozen disadvantaged schools in India and Colombia.

2013: Design, Development and Deployment of 'Schools in the Cloud'
This project was made possible by the 1 million dollar TED prize of 2013. Seven experimental sites, two in the UK and five in India, will be set up and observed over a three year period. Schools in the Cloud brings together the concept of SOLEs (Self Organised Learning Environments) and SOMEs (Self Organised Mediation Environments).

Contributions to Science and Technology

Generally considered to have a wide and multidisciplinary view of communication and computer applications. The following ideas have, arguably, influenced computing paradigms:

1978: The relationship between the structure and function of organic molecules
Through an interesting thought experiment and a large amount of computation showed that the properties of the Pthalocyanine group of molecules depend on their shapes more than on the constituent atoms. Later applied this thinking to automatic typographic design.
Ref: Crystal Structure Sensitivity of the Band Structure of Organic Semiconductors, S.C. Mathur and S. Mitra, J.Phys.C Solid State, Vol 12 No.2 1979 (UK).

1982: A correlation between location and sensitivity of human sense organs
A speculative concept connecting physiology and quanta that could be of seminal interest to robotics today.
Ref: A Correlation between the Location and Sensitivity of Human Sense Organs, A.K. Bannerjee and S.Mitra, Spec. Science and Tech. Vol 5 No2 pg 141, 1982 (Australia).

1983: A diagnostic method for computer programming training
A simple and powerful method that involves detection of bugs purposely put into a program. Currently used for software quality control in several companies including Motorola.
Ref: Sugata Mitra and R.S.Pawar, Data Training, Vol2, No3, February 1983 (USA).

1985: Distributed processing over Local Area Networks
One of the earliest methods for breaking down large computational and database problems into smaller segments for simultaneous processing by many small computers. Reduced the cost of database publishing hardware by several orders of magnitude.
Ref: Computers Today, October 1988, pg 73 (India).

1988: Hyperlinking
A concept for non-linear interconnection of “Hyper-screens” left over from application programs after they have completed execution. This gives a general framework for the development of almost all multimedia and virtual reality applications as well as a new and wider meaning to graphical user interfaces.
Ref: Imaginet: An Associative, Non-sequential multimedia Storage and Retrieval System
S.Mitra and Ajay Magon, Multmedia Computer and Communications: Technology, Application and Enterprise (INFOCOM ‘92), Tata McGraw Hill pg 20-30, November 5-7, 1992, Bombay (India)
Also: Sunday Magazine, August 11, 1993 (India).

1991: The Virtual Organism
A concept that extrapolates beyond the Graphical User Interface to schemes that interact with a user in an organic, multisensory manner. Integrates Database management Systems, Multimedia, Neural Networks and Expert Systems using the Left and Right Brain model.
Ref: Artificial Intelligence and India, IEEE Asia Pacific Horizon, Jan’93-Mar’93, Pg54 (India).

1993: Effect of damage on Neural Networks
Started in the late eighties, among the first workers to suggest that artificial neural networks can be used to gain an understanding of brain malfunction in diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
Ref: Proc. 1994 IEEE/SMC Conference, Vol.1, Pg 989 (USA).

1994: Storage and Retrieval of Human Personality
Current work continuing on the intriguing possibility of a digital, multisensory personality system that would encapsulate the basic graphical, vocal, mental and attitudinal characteristics of a person.
Ref: Telegraph, Calcutta, Monday, May 29 1995 (India).

1996: The Cognitive User Interface
Using the psychological principles underlying human personality and communication, this is an attempt at constructing user interfaces that proact (instead of react) and adapt to human needs.

This work is continuing.

1997: Meaning in Binary Strings
Using simple analytical techniques, this is an attempt to determine where “meaning” lies in binary string representations of media objects.
This work is continuing.
Ref: Dataquest (India), May 31, (1998)

1999: Minimally Invasive Education
A set of experiments that set out to investigate the processes by which children self-instruct each other in skill areas. The experiments involve constructing outdoor Internet kiosks in rural and semi-urban areas, particularly where economically disadvantaged children live. The children are exposed to the technology with no instruction whatsoever. It is observed that they reach close to the levels of city children with no difficulty. Additional effects such as management skills, social skills, behaviour changes and acquisition of the English language has been observed as well.
This work is continuing.
Ref: Mitra, Sugata et al., (2005), Acquisition of Computer Literacy on Shared Public Computers: Children and the “Hole in the wall”, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 21(3), 407-426

2006: Fractal Replication in Time Manipulated Cellular Automata
A computer simulation shows that connected systems with an 'imagined' future will reproduce images fractally. Could this be a basis for memory and consciousness. This work in continuing.
Ref: Mitra Sugata and Kumar, Sujai (2005). ‘Fractal Replication in Time Manipulated One-Dimensional Cellular Automata’, Complex Systems, Vol. 16 (3).

2009: Self Organised Learning and Mediation Environments (SOLEs and SOMEs)
Devloped the concepts of SOLE where children in groups manage their own learning. They are assisted by a 'granny cloud', a groups of mostly retired teachers who interact with the children over Skype.

2013: The School in the Cloud
Experiments with seven facilities, two in the UK and five in India, where children use Self Organised Learning Environments and the Granny Cloud to take charge of their own learning.

Recent research awards

Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, 2000-2006, $ 150,000 for experiments in the Hole in the Wall technology in Delhi Slums.

ICCR, Government of India, 2001-2003, $ 300,000 for experiments in the Hole in the Wall technology in Cambodia.

The Social Initiatives group, ICICI bank, 2002-2005, $ 50,000 for experiments in the Hole in the Wall technology in 5 villages in western coastal Maharashtra, India.

World Bank/International Finance Corporation, 2001-2004, $1.6 million for experiments in the Hole in the Wall technology in 23 Indian villages.

The Education Fund of Orient Global, 2006 onwards, $2 million for experiments in self regulated education in remote and rural areas.

Knowledge Transfer Partership, 2009-2010, about GBP 100,000 for a reseach project with ICS, Glasgow.

MIT Media Lab, 2011, $100,000 approx. funded by OLPC, USA, towards spending a year at the Media Lab.

The TED project, 2013: $1,000,000 towards the School in the Cloud project.



  1. Mitra, Sugata (2012), Beyond the Hole in the Wall, Discover the power of self organised learning (eBook) TED Books, USA
  2. Mitra, Sugata (2006), The Hole in the Wall: Self-Organising Systems in EducationTata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, now translated into Portuguese and Italian.
  3. Gaurav Bhatnagar, Shikha Mehta, Sugata Mitra. (eds), (2002), Introduction To Multimedia Systems, San Diego, California and London: Academic

Journal articles

  1. Mitra, Sugata and Dangwal, Ritu (2017) Acquisition of Computer Literacy Skills through self organising systems of learning among children in Bhutan and India, Prospects 2017, pp 1-18, Mitra and Dangwal
  2. Mitra Sugata, Kulkarni, Suneeta and Stanfield, James (2016) Learning at the Edge of Chaos: Self Organising Systems in Education, The Palgrave International Handbook of Alternative Education, pp 227-239.
  3. Mitra, S., Dixon, P., Humble, S. and Counihan, C. (2015) From Hole in the Wall to School in the Cloud, Handbook of International Development and Education, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp. 268-376
  4. Mitra, Sugata (2014) The future of schooling: Children and learning at the edge of chaos, Prospects, December 2014, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 547–558
  5. Sugata and Crawley, Emma (2014) Effectiveness of Self-Organised Learning by Children: Gateshead Experiments Sugata Mitra1 & Emma Crawley
    Journal of Education and Human Development September 2014, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 79-88
  6. Dolan, Paul, Leat, David, Mazzoli Smith, Laura, Mitra, Sugata, Todd , Liz and
    Wall, Kate (2013) Self-Organised Learning Environments (SOLEs) in an English School:
    an example of transformative pedagogy? Online Education Research Journal, 3 (11).
    ISSN 2044-0294
  7. Philip, Kurien and Mitra, Sugata (2012): Collaborative learning amongst distance learners of mathematics, Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 27:3, 227-247
  8. Mitra, Sugata and Quiroga, Mabel (2012), 'Children and the Internet - A preliminary study in Uruguay', International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(15), August 2012.
  9. Mitra, Sugata (2010). 'Method ELSE, for schools where children teach themselves, International Schools Journal, Volume XXX, No. 1, November 2010, pp8-14.
  10. Mitra, Sugata and Dangwal, Ritu (2010). ‘Limits to self-organising systems of learning—the Kalikuppam experiment’, British Journal of Educational Technology, Volume 41, Issue 5, pages 672–688, September 2010
  11. Mitra, Sugata (2009). 'Remote Presence: Technologies for 'Beaming' Teachers Where They Cannot Go'. Journal of emerging technology and web intelligence, 2009, 1(1), 55-59.
  12. Kumar, Sujai and Mitra, Sugata (2006). 'Self-Organizing Traffic at a Malfunctioning Intersection'. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 9(4) <>.
  13. Mitra Sugata and Kumar, Sujai (2005). ‘Fractal Replication in Time Manipulated One-Dimensional Cellular Automata’, Complex Systems, Vol. 16 (3). Mitra and Kumar
  14. Mitra, Sugata (2005), Self organizing systems for mass computer literacy: Findings from the “hole in the wall” experiments, International Journal of Development Issues, Vol. 4 (1), 71-81.
  15. Mitra, Sugata, Ritu Dangwal, Shiffon Chatterjee, Swati Jha, Ravinder S. Bisht and Preeti Kapur (2005), Acquisition of Computer Literacy on Shared Public Computers: Children and the “Hole in the wall”, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 21(3), 407-426.
  16. Karuna Batra, Sugata Mitra, D. Subbarao and R. Uma (2004), Graphical user interface based computer simulation of self similar modes of a paraxial slow self-focusing laser beam for saturating plasma non-linearities, Physics of Plasmas,
  17. Karuna Batra, Sugata Mitra, D. Subbarao and R. Uma (2004), Computer simulation of cylindrical laser beam self-focusing in a plasma, Computer Physics Communications, Vol 1.208, Elsevier
  18. Mitra, Sugata, (2003), Minimally Invasive Education: A progress report on the “Hole-in-the-wall” experiments, The British Journal of Educational Technology, 34,3, pp. 367-371
  19. Mitra, Sugata, J. Tooley, P. Inamdar and P. Dixon (2003) Improving English pronunciation – an automated instructional approach, Information Technology and International Development, 1(1) pp. 741-83, MIT Press
  20. Mitra, Sugata and Vivek Rana (2001), Children and the Internet: Experiments with minimally invasive education in India, The British Journal of Educational Technology, 32,2,pp 221-232.
  21. Dangwal, Ritu and Mitra, Sugata, (2000) Learning Styles and Perceptions of Self, International Education, Volume 4, Number 4 (December 2000) ISSN 1327-9548
  22. Dangwal, Ritu and Mitra, Sugata, (1998) Learning Styles Inventory – in the Asian context, Journal of Psychological Researches, 42(3) p.138-145
  23. A correlation between the location and sensitivity of human sense organs. A.K. Banerjee and S. Mitra, Spec. Science and Technology, 5, (2), 141 (1982) Australia.
  24. A design for zinc-chlorine batteries. S. Mitra, Journal of Power Sources, 8, 359-367 (1982) USA
  25. Exciton dissociation at phenanthrene-metal junctions. K. Roy, S.C. Mathur and S. Mitra, Ind. Journal of Pure and Applied Physics(1981) India.
  26. Crystal structure sensitivity of the band structure of organic semiconductors. S.C. Mathur and S. Mitra, Journal of Phys.C Solid State, 12, (2) (1979) UK.
  27. Exciton and Bose-Einstein condensation in living systems. R.K. Mishra, K. Bhaumik, S.C. Mathur and S.Mitra, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry., 16, 691 (1979) Sweden.
  28. Helicity and heteroatomic effects on the band structure of one dimensional conductor (SN)x. S.C. Mathur and S. Mitra, Proc. Nucl. & Solid State Phys. Symp., 21C, 184 (1978) India.
  29. Exciton dissociation at pthalocyanine-iodine interfaces. S.C. Mathur and S. Mitra, Proc. Nucl. & Solid State Phys. Symp., 21C, 184 (1978) India.
  30. A two parameter omega technique for MO calculations. S.C. Mathur, D.C. Singh, B. Kumar and S.Mitra, International Journal of Quantitative Chemistry, 11, 759 (1977) Sweden.
  31. Effect of solid dilution on the crystal field spectrum of cobalt ammonium sulphate hexahydrate diluted with zinc ammonium sulphate hexahydrate. S.C. Mathur, R.S. Daryan and S. Mitra, Proc. Nucl. & Solid State Phys. Symp., 19C, 474 (1976) India.
  32. Optical absorption of divalent nickel in octahedral cubic crystalline fields. S.C. Mathur, R.S. Daryan and S. Mitra, Proc. Nucl. & Solid State Phys. Symp., 19C, 476 (1976) India.

Some other publications

1. A non-linear system for the administration of correspondence programmes. S. Mitra, Media in Education and Training, February 1982, UK.
2. Diagnostic Computer-Assisted-Instruction, a methodology for the teaching of computer languages. S. Mitra and R.S. Pawar, Sixth Western Educational Computing Conf., Nov. 1982, San Diego, USA.
3. Compositors that compute, S. Mitra, Computers Today, May 1985, India.
4. A computer assisted learning strategy for computer literacy programmes. S. Mitra, presented at the Annual Convention of the All-India Association for Educational Technology, December 1988, Goa, India.
5. Voluntary perception analysis - a new measurement device. S. Mitra, Media and Technology for Human Resources Development, Oct. 1989, India.
6. Imaginet - An associative, non-linear, multimedia storage and retrieval system. S. Mitra and Ajay Magon, Multimedia Computer and Communications (INFOCOM ’92), Tata McGraw Hill pp20-30, (1992), Bombay, India.
7. A learning technology for illiterates and the visually handicapped. S. Mitra, Int. Conf. Educational Tech., AIAET, New Delhi, Oct. 1993 India.
8. The effect of synaptic disconnection on bi-directional associative recall. S. Mitra , Proc. IEEE/SMC Conf., Vol.1, 989, 1994 USA.
9. Using bi-directional associative memories for speaker identification, Renu Ahuja and Sugata Mitra, Proc. IEEE/SMC Conf., Vol.3,2286, 1995 USA.
10. Education through Digital Entertainment - A Structured Approach, Renu Ahuja, Sugata Mitra, Rashmi Kumar, Monica Singh, Proc. XXX Ann. Conv. Of CSI, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, pp 187-194 (1995).
11. On the Reconstruction of Human Voice, Sugata Mitra and Radhika Madaan, Proc. XXX Ann. Conv. Of CSI, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, pp 159-164 (1995).
12. An Instructional Design Strategy for Internet based education, Sugata Mitra, presented at the Comdex ’96 Conference and Exposition, Singapore (1996).
13. Multimedia Design for the Internet, Sugata Mitra, presented at the Parallel Convention, 13th Commonwealth Conference of Education Ministers, Gaborone, Botswana (1997).
14. Meaning in Binary Strings, Sugata Mitra, Dataquest (India), May 31, (1998).
15. Virtual Institutions in the Indian Subcontinent (invited review article) , The Development of Virtual Education: A global perspective, Dr. Glen M. Farrell (ed.),The Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver, Canada, (1999).
16. Intangibles Inc.: the business of changing ideas into applications, Sugata Mitra, Proceedings of the R&D Management Conference, CSIR, India, (1999). Pp 189-193
17. Development of a cognitive system for automated tutoring, S. Mitra, presented at the annual conference of the International Council on Distance Education (ICDE99), Vienna, Austria (1999).
18. Children and the Internet: An experiment with minimally invasive education in India, S. Mitra and V. Rana, CSI Communications, pg. 12, June 1999, India (1999).
19. Minimally Invasive Education For Mass Computer Literacy, Sugata Mitra, presented at the CRIDALA 2000 conference in Hong Kong, June 21-25, 2000.
20. Children and the Internet: New Paradigms for Development in the 21st Century, Keynote address at the Asian Science and Technology Conference in the year 2000, Tokyo, June 6, Japan (2000).
21. Eight powers of ten, Sugata Mitra, Student magazine for design, Ultrazinnober 03, Muthesius-Hochschule, Academy for design and fine arts, Kiel, Germany (2003)
22. The Hole In The Wall, Sugata Mitra, Dataquest, September 23 (2004),
23. Minimally Invasive Education, pedagogy for development in a connected world, S. Mitra, Invited talk at the International conference on Science and Mathematics Education, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt (2003)
24. SOS for UPE: Self Organising Systems for Mass Education, S. Mitra, eGov Monitor,</span>, UK (2006)


Indian Patent No. 217117
A new/improved cognitiveKiosk for the use in rural, outdoor and tropical environment (2008)
Sugata Mitra, Vivek Rana
Indian Patent No. 217595
A fault tolerent computing system (2009)
Sugata Mitra, Sanjay Gupta, S. Minz

Key invited talks

Videos of some invited lectures:

Google video of talk at LIFT 07
The same talk as above in TED talksTED Global talk at Oxford, 2010
ALT-C 2010 Keynote
BBC Culture Show extract - 25 november 2010
A SOLE session at the Washington International School in February 2011
Google Zeitgeist 2011, London
Lots of talks all together
TED Book: Beyond the Hole In The Wall
TED Prize 2013 Talk


  1. R.S. Pawar, Chairman, NIIT Limited, 85, Sector 32, Institutional Area. Gurgaon 122001, India. Tel: +91 (124) 4293000 , Fax: +91 (124) 4293333. Email:
  2. Kenneth Keniston, Andrew Mellon Professor of Human Development, Director MIT India Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E51-163, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Phone:1-617-253-4055 1-617-253-4055 Fax: 1-617-258-8118, Email:
  3. Prof. Nicholas Negroponte, Emeritus Chairman, MIT Media Lab, 75 Amherst Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Email:
  4. Prof. Marmar Mukhopadhyay, NIEPA, Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India. Phone: +91(11)685 3942 email: